Facility Manager's Maintenance Handbook

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Description

An essential on-the-job resource, Facility Manager's Maintenance Handbook presents step-by-step coverage of the planning, design, and execution of operations and maintenance procedures for structures, equipment, and systems in any type of facility. This career-building reference provides the tools needed to streamline facility management processes…reduce operational costs…and ensure the effective utilization, maintenance, repair, and renovation of existing physical assets.

Now with 40% new information, this Second Edition includes brand-new chapters on emergency response procedures…maintenance operations benchmarking…capital and operational budgets management…boiler and steam plant operations... and other vital topics. The only book of its kind to cover both operations and maintenance, the updated Facility Manager's Maintenance Handbook features:

  • Updated information on mechanical equipment and systems maintenance
  • The latest fire protection procedures
  • A comprehensive account of building codes
  • Guidance on hazardous materials handling
  • Excellent preparation for the IFMA Certified Facility Manager (CFM) qualification

Author:

Richard P. Payant & Bernard T. Lewis

Published:

2007

Format:

Hardback

Pages:

560

Excerpt:

While vibration monitoring is certainly the most widely used tool for determining rotating machinery condition, oil analysis will, in many situations, provide an earlier indication that abnormal or premature wear is in progress. Oil monitoring and analysis is especially appropriate for slow-speed machines, reciprocating machines and gearboxes, as they usually show developing faults earlier using oil versus vibration analysis.

As internal machine components wear, they leave the wear particles in the lubricating oil. Identifying the existence, size, shape and elements of the wear particles leads to identifying the particular component experiencing the wear. This valuable information can then be used to aid in determining the ability of the machine to continue operating, planning for repairs, ordering necessary parts, and preventing unnecessary, unplanned downtime.

Table Of Contents:

Part 1: Organizing for Maintenance Operations

  • Chapter 1. Program Organizational Structure - Richard S. Nietubicz and Bernard T. Lewis
    • 1.1 Responsibilities and Authority
    • 1.2 The Facility Manager
    • 1.3 Facility Planning
    • 1.4 Facility Engineering and Design
    • 1.5 Engineering Support to the Maintenance and Operations Functions
    • 1.5.1 Specialized technical services
    • 1.5.2 Cost reduction
    • 1.6 Construction of Facilities and Installation of Equipment and Systems
    • 1.6.1 Personnel in facility organizations-Single-project worker-hour limit
    • 1.6.2 Contract work inspections
    • 1.6.3 Construction meetings
    • 1.6.4 Contract administration
    • 1.7 Maintenance of Plant Facilities and Equipment
    • 1.7.1 Operations and maintenance workload
    • 1.7.2 Evaluation of performance
    • 1.8 Preventive Maintenance
    • 1.9 Routine Maintenance
    • 1.10 Major Repairs
    • 1.11 Alterations and Improvements
    • 1.12 Housekeeping
    • 1.13 Principles of Organization
    • 1.13.1 Definition and scope
    • 1.14 Facilities Management Defined
    • 1.14.1 Facility management functions
    • 1.14.2 Organizational prerequisites
    • 1.15 Analyzing the Needs
    • 1.16 Establishing Goals and Objectives
    • 1.17 Administering the Organization
    • 1.18 Organization vs. People
    • 1.19 Performance Measurement
    • 1.20 Organizing Considerations for Outsourcing Functions References
  • Chapter 2. Program Operations - Michael D. Burns
    • 2.1 Designing the Maintenance Management Information System
    • 2.1.1 What kind of information do you need?
    • 2.1.2 Common information needs
    • 2.1.3 Special information needs
    • 2.1.4 Hardware and software requirements
    • 2.2 Functions of the System
    • 2.2.1 Maintenance planning and scheduling
    • 2.2.2 Corrective maintenance
    • 2.2.3 "House calls"
    • 2.2.4 Projects
    • 2.2.5 Parts availability
    • 2.2.6 Information system integration
    • 2.2.7 Use of preventive and predictive information
    • 2.2.8 Warranties information
    • 2.2.9 Production and financial report
    • 2.2.10 Personnel data
    • 2.2.11 Quality control and quality assurance information
    • 2.3 Annual Maintenance Operational Report
    • 2.3.1 Elements of a successful system
    • 2.3.2 Maintenance history vs. machinery history
    • 2.3.3 Quality management impact
    • 2.3.4 Maintenance "outplanning"
    • 2.4 Maintenance Management Manual
    • 2.4.1 Scope of the manual
    • 2.4.2 Maintenance objective
    • 2.4.3 Lines of authority
    • 2.4.4 Task responsibility
    • 2.4.5 Corrective action
    • 2.4.6 Regular review of feedback
    • 2.4.7 Document control
    • 2.4.8 Regular review of entire system
    • 2.5 Other Considerations

Part 2: Facility Operations and Maintenance Plans

  • Chapter 3. Operations Plans - Richard P. Payant
    • 3.1 Management Operational Plan
    • 3.1.1 Work control methods and procedures
    • 3.1.2 Work control center
    • 3.1.3 Service orders (SO)
    • 3.1.4 Work orders (WO)
    • 3.1.5 Standing operating orders (SOO)
    • 3.1.6 Preventive maintenance (PM)
    • 3.1.7 Work Priority System
    • 3.1.8 Emergency priority
    • 3.1.9 Urgent priority
    • 3.1.10 Routine priority
    • 3.1.11 Work approval
    • 3.1.12 Planning
    • 3.1.13 Scheduling
    • 3.1.14 Execution of work
    • 3.1.15 Checked and inspected
    • 3.1.16 Closed and cost accounted
    • 3.1.17 Results recorded, analyzed, and measured
    • 3.1.18 Feedback
    • 3.2 Building Operational Plan
    • 3.2.1 Scheduling work
    • 3.2.2 Shutdowns and startups
    • 3.2.3 Emergency situations
    • 3.2.4 Trouble diagnosis and coordination
    • 3.2.5 Coordination with third parties
    • 3.2.6 Benchmarking
    • 3.2.7 Statistical process control
    • 3.3 Comprehensive Facility Operational Plans
    • 3.3.1 Emergency response plan
    • 3.3.2 Hazardous materials plan
    • 3.3.3 Refrigerant management
    • 3.3.4 Safety plans
    • 3.3.5 Fire protection plans
    • 3.3.6 Labor unrest
    • 3.4 Facility Occupant Support Plan
    • 3.4.1 Improving perceptions
    • 3.4.2 Determining wants
    • 3.4.3 Provide feedback
    • 3.5 Quality Control Plan
    • 3.5.1 Specific QCP objectives
    • 3.5.2 Inspection system
    • 3.5.3 Inspections by FD personnel
    • 3.5.4 Identifying and tracking substandard performance
    • 3.5.5 Correcting deficiencies
    • 3.6 Summary
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Maintenance Plans - William G. Suter, Jr.
    • 4.1 Equipment, Systems, and Structure Building Tours
    • 4.1.1 Introduction
    • 4.1.2 Purpose
    • 4.1.3 Implementation
    • 4.1.4 Scheduling
    • 4.1.5 Equipment and system logs
    • 4.1.6 Technology
    • 4.1.7 Staffing
    • 4.1.8 Documentation
    • 4.1.9 Summary
    • 4.2 Engineered Performance Standards (EPS) Usage Plan
    • 4.2.1 Basis for all types of labor time standards (EPS)
    • 4.2.2 Computerization
    • 4.2.3 Why have labor time standards (EPS)?
    • 4.2.4 Types of EPS
    • 4.2.5 Estimate
    • 4.2.6 Historical work standards
    • 4.2.7 Direct observed standards
    • 4.2.8 Published engineered performance standards
    • 4.2.9 Engineered performance standards (EPS)
    • 4.2.10 Management manuals
    • 4.2.11 Trades manuals
    • 4.2.12 General Services Administration: Public buildings maintenance guides and time standards
    • 4.2.13 R.S. Means maintenance standards
    • 4.2.14 How to use standards, a step-by-step guide
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Preventive Maintenance (PM) Plan - J.R. Ruta and Tony Graff
    • 5.1 PM Procedures
    • 5.1.1 Dollars and cents
    • 5.2 Automated Program-Software
    • 5.2.1 Getting started with a CMMS
    • 5.2.2 Flexibility and user friendliness
    • 5.2.3 Generic CMMS function
    • 5.2.4 Implementing a CMMS
    • 5.3 Maintenance File Cards
    • 5.4 Equipment History Files
    • 5.5 Verifying Facility Inventory
    • 5.5.1 Computerizing inventory
    • 5.5.2 Inventory control (tracking)
    • 5.6 Labeling Facility Equipment
    • 5.7 Annual PM Schedule
    • 5.8 Setting Special Schedules
    • 5.9 Opening or Dismantling Equipment
    • 5.10 Computerized Records and Reporting
  • Chapter 6. Predictive Maintenance Plan - Joseph E. Humphrey
    • 6.1 Benefits of Predictive Maintenance
    • 6.2 Predictive Maintenance Technologies
    • 6.2.1 Vibration monitoring
    • 6.2.2 Infrared (IR) thermography
    • 6.2.3 Oil analysis
    • 6.2.4 Ultrasound
    • 6.2.5 Integration
    • 6.2.6 Expert systems
    • 6.3 Predictive Process
    • 6.3.1 Program startup
    • 6.3.2 Measure program effectiveness
    • 6.3.3 Review and revise program references
  • Chapter 7. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Plan - Richard M. Silberman
    • 7.1 IAQ and the Contemporary Facility Manager
    • 7.1.1 Indoor pollutants
    • 7.1.2 Sick building syndrome
    • 7.1.3 Causes and considerations
    • 7.1.4 Facility managers go proactive
    • 7.2 The Proactive Facility Inspection and Sampling Techniques
    • 7.2.1 Objectives
    • 7.2.2 Scope of proactive facility inspection
    • 7.2.3 Analysis of building data
    • 7.2.4 HVAC inspection
    • 7.2.5 Air quality tests
    • 7.2.6 Outdoor air
    • 7.2.7 Water quality testing (associated with HVAC systems)
    • 7.2.8 Drinking water sampling and analysis
    • 7.2.9 Other tests
    • 7.2.10 Facility inspection reports
    • 7.2.11 Facility reinspections
    • 7.3 Avoidance Procedures
    • 7.3.1 Preventive operations, maintenance, and policy
    • 7.3.2 Designing healthy buildings
    • 7.3.3 Managing IAQ risk within leases
  • Chapter 8. Technical Improvements Plan - Clive Shearer, Harlen E. Smith, and Alan Pearlman, P.E.
    • 8.1 Total Quality Management (TOM) Program
    • 8.1.1 TOM-What it is
    • 8.1.2 TQM-What it is not
    • 8.1.3 Rewards to be reaped
    • 8.1.4 How does TOM work?
    • 8.1.5 Summary: What to do to keep TOM on track
    • 8.2 Value Improvement Program
    • 8.2.1 Validation of value
    • 8.2.2 Value engineering
    • 8.2.3 Synergistic opportunities
    • 8.2.4 Successful value engineering
    • 8.2.5 Increase value
    • 8.2.6 Value perceptions
    • 8.2.7 Why does poor value occur?
    • 8.2.8 Value engineering process
    • 8.3 Energy Management Program
    • 8.3.1 Overview
    • 8.3.2 Mechanical systems
    • 8.3.3 Control systems
    • 8.3.4 Energy management programs
    • 8.3.5 Chiller plant
    • 8.3.6 Hot water reset
    • 8.3.7 Lighting controls
    • 8.3.8 Conclusions
    • Reference

Part 3: Equipment and Systems Operations and Maintenance Procedures

  • Chapter 9. Equipment and Systems Operations Procedures - Dennis E. Mulgrew
    • 9.1 Equipment Inventory
    • 9.1.1 Conditions assessment
    • 9.1.2 Design assessment
    • 9.2 Operational Requirements
    • 9.2.1 Equipment startup and shutdown
    • 9.2.2 Operational checks
    • 9.2.3 Lighting
    • 9.2.4 Relamping
    • 9.2.5 Energy conservation
    • 9.2.6 Use of demand control ventilation
    • 9.3 Facility Management Tools
    • 9.3.1 Energy management control system (EMCS) operations
    • 9.3.2 Emergency and extended FMS operations
    • 9.3.3 FMS service program
    • 9.3.4 FM operating personnel requirements
    • 9.3.5 Remote control operating requirements
    • Reference
  • Chapter 10. Fire Protection Systems - Paul Goldenberg
    • 10.1 Fire Protection Systems
    • 10.2 Basic Principles of Fire
    • 10.3 Building Fire Prevention Codes
    • 10.4 Fire Detection and Suppression Systems
    • 10.4.1 Types of detectors
    • 10.4.2 Suppression systems
    • 10.4.3 Portable fire extinguishers
    • 10.5 Fire and Emergency Action Plans
  • Chapter 11. Electrical Equipment and System Maintenance Procedures - Dana L. Green
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Electrical Safety
    • 11.3 Insulation Resistance Measurements
    • 11.4 Winding Turns Ratio Measurements
    • 11.5 Power Factor and Dielectric-Loss Measurements
    • 11.5.1 Dielectric loss
    • 11.5.2 Power factor
    • 11.6 Motion Analysis of Circuit Breakers
    • 11.7 Insulation and Insulators, General
    • 11.8 Insulating Liquids
    • 11.8.1 Sampling
    • 11.8.2 Sample containers
    • 11.8.3 Sampling location
    • 11.8.4 Sampling procedures
    • 11.8.5 Periodic tests
    • 11.8.6 Other tests
    • 11.9 Switchgear
    • 11.9.1 Maintenance
    • 11.9.2 Tests
    • 11.10 Protective Relays
    • 11.10.1 General
    • 11.10.2 Construction
    • 11.10.3 Types and device numbers
    • 11.10.4 Maintenance
    • 11.10.5 Tests
    • 11.10.6 Cautions
    • 11.11 Ground Fault Protection
    • 11.11.1 Electrical tests
    • 11.12 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI)
    • 11.13 Low-Voltage Molded (Insulated) Case Circuit Breakers
    • 11.13.1 Electrical tests, energized and carrying load
    • 11.13.2 Electrical tests, deenergized
    • 11.14 Low-Voltage Air Circuit Breakers
    • 11.14.1 Maintenance
    • 11.14.2 Tests
    • 11.15 Medium-Voltage Breakers
    • 11.15.1 Air breakers
    • 11.15.2 Maintenance
    • 11.15.3 Tests
    • 11.15.4 Vacuum breakers
    • 11.15.5 Maintenance
    • 11.15.6 Tests
    • 11.15.7 Oil breakers
    • 11.15.8 Maintenance
    • 11.15.9 Tests
    • 11.16 Switches
    • 11.16.1 Maintenance
    • 11.16.2 Tests
    • 11.17 Fuses
    • 11.17.1 Maintenance
    • 11.17.2 Tests
    • 11.18 Motor Control Centers and Starters
    • 11.18.1 Maintenance, low-voltage units
    • 11.18.2 Tests, low-voltage units
    • 11.18.3 Maintenance, medium-voltage units
    • 11.18.4 Tests, medium-voltage units
    • 11.19 Batteries and Battery Chargers
    • 11.19.1 Batteries
    • 11.19.2 Battery chargers
    • 11.19.3 Maintenance of batteries
    • 11.19.4 Tests
    • 11.19.5 Maintenance of chargers
    • 11.19.6 Tests
    • 11.19.7 Cautions
    • 11.20 Transformers
    • 11.20.1 Power and distribution transformers
    • 11.20.2 Instrument transformers
    • 11.20.3 Specialty transformers
    • 11.20.4 Control transformers
    • 11.20.5 Construction
    • 11.20.6 Dry-type transformers
    • 11.20.7 Liquid-filled transformers
    • 11.20.8 Transformer insulating liquids
    • 11.20.9 Transformer appurtenances
    • 11.20.10 Maintenance, dry-type transformers, as applicable
    • 11.20.11 Tests of dry-type transformers
    • 11.20.12 Maintenance of liquid-filled transformers
    • 11.20.13 Tests for liquid-filled transformers
    • 11.21 Voltage-Regulating Apparatus
    • 11.21.1 Step voltage regulators and load tap changers (LTC)
    • 11.21.2 Induction-type voltage regulators
    • 11.21.3 Voltage-regulating relay system
    • 11.21.4 Maintenance
    • 11.21.5 Electrical tests
    • 11.22 Cable and Wire
    • 11.22.1 Maintenance
    • 11.22.2 Testing
    • 11.23 Rotating Machines
    • 11.23.1 Introduction
    • 11.23.2 Safety
    • 11.23.3 Maintenance
    • 11.23.4 Commutator, slip rings, and brush maintenance
    • 11.23.5 Alignment
    • 11.23.6 Air gap measurement
    • 11.23.7 Grounding straps
    • 11.23.8 Tests
    • 11.23.9 Synchronous motor tests
    • 11.24 Surge Arresters
    • 11.24.1 Maintenance
    • 11.24.2 Tests
    • 11.25 Grounding Systems and Equipment Grounding
    • 11.25.1 Grounding systems
    • 11.25.2 Equipment grounding
    • 11.25.3 Maintenance
    • 11.25.4 Tests
    • 11.26 Frequency of Performance
    • 11.27 Personnel Qualifications
    • 11.28 Tables of Values
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Outsourcing Considerations - Bernard T. Lewis and Paul S. Lewis
    • 12.1 Recommended Tasks for Outsourcing
    • 12.2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing
    • 12.2.1 Advantages
    • 12.2.2 The disadvantages of outsourcing
    • 12.3 Contract Services
    • 12.4 Quality Control
    • 12.5 Flexibility
    • 12.6 Reduced Capital Expenditures
    • 12.7 Employing Specialty Contractors
    • 12.8 Selecting an Outsourcing Source
    • 12.9 Judging Abilities of an Outsourcing Firm
    • 12.10 Responsibility for Outsource Firm Administration and Control
    • 12.11 Outsource Contract Administration
    • 12.11.1 Negotiating the outsource contract
    • 12.11.2 Specification of services; responsibility for communications; supplies, materials, equipment, and utilities
    • 12.11.3 Certified outsource firm personnel to be used
    • 12.11.4 Scheduling work and/or reporting requirements
    • 12.11.5 Supervision of outsourcing agreement
    • 12.11.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 13. General Cleaning, Solid Waste and Recycling - Steve Sadler and Paul Zeski
    • 13.1 General
    • 13.2 Types of Cleaning
    • 13.3 Cleaning Program
    • 13.4 Staffing
    • 13.5 Job Descriptions
    • 13.6 Quality Control
    • 13.7 Waste Management Program
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Landscaping Services - Carleen M. Wood-Thomas
    • 14.1 General Responsibilities of the Contractor
    • 14.2 Selecting a Contractor and the Bidding Process
    • 14.3 Lawn Maintenance
    • 14.3.1 Mowing and trimming
    • 14.3.2 Weed control and pests
    • 14.3.3 Fertilization
    • 14.3.4 Dethatching and aeration
    • 14.3.5 Overseeding
    • 14.4 Maintenance of Trees, Shrubs, and Other Plantings
    • 14.4.1 Mulch and weed control
    • 14.4.2 Pruning
    • 14.4.3 Fertilization
    • 14.4.4 Cleanup
    • 14.5 Pest Management
    • 14.6 Watering
    • 14.7 Seasonal Color
    • 14.8 Quality Control
    • References
  • Chapter 15. Elevator and Escalator Equipment and Systems Maintenance and Repair Services - Ronald D. Schloss
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Operating Instructions
    • 15.2.1 Elevators
    • 15.2.2 Freight elevators
    • 15.2.3 Hand elevators
    • 15.2.4 Hand-operated dumbwaiters
    • 15.2.5 Hand- and power-operated dumbwaiters
    • 15.2.6 Wheelchair lifts
    • 15.2.7 Escalators and moving walks
    • 15.2.8 ADA signage (Americans with Disabilities Act)
    • 15.2.9 Additional signage
    • 15.2.10 Equipment identification signs
    • 15.3 Maintenance of Equipment
    • 15.3.1 Definitions and terminology
    • 15.3.2 Contracted maintenance
    • 15.3.3 In-house maintenance
    • 15.3.4 Removing equipment from service
    • 15.4 Monitoring Equipment Performance
    • 15.4.1 What to monitor
    • 15.4.2 Callback and downtime performance
    • 15.5 Monitoring Maintenance Performance
    • 15.6 Improving Safety and Limiting Liability
    • 15.7 Modernization of Equipment
    • 15.7.1 Why, when, and what to modernize
    • 15.7.2 How to select a modernization contractor
    • References
  • Chapter 16. Water Treatment Services - Arthur J. Freedman
    • 16.1 Facility Water Systems
    • 16.1.1 Air-conditioning systems
    • 16.1.2 Heating systems
    • 16.1.3 Humidification systems
    • 16.1.4 Potable water systems
    • 16.1.5 Principles of water treatment
    • 16.2 Obtaining Water Treatment Services
    • 16.2.1 Contracted services vs. in-house water treatment
    • 16.2.2 Full-service water treatment
    • 16.2.3 Support service water treatment
    • 16.2.4 The role of consultants in contracted water treatment services
    • 16.3 Installing a New Water Treatment Program
    • 16.3.1 Selecting a water treatment vendor
    • 16.3.2 Water treatment specifications
    • 16.4 Managing a Facility Water Treatment Program
    • 16.4.1 Service programs
    • 16.4.2 Evaluating water treatment program performance
    • 16.4.3 Cleaning water system equipment and piping
    • References
  • Chapter 17. Utilities Infrastructure Systems - Robert L. Camperlino
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Steam and Hot Water Production
    • 17.2.1 Boiler types
    • 17.2.2 Basic design
    • 17.2.3 Packaged units or field erected
    • 17.2.4 Steam or hot water generation
    • 17.2.5 Operating pressure
    • 17.2.6 Type of fuel
    • 17.2.7 Chemical water treatment
    • 17.3 Chilled Water Production
    • 17.3.1 Chiller types
    • 17.3.2 Efficiency
    • 17.3.3 Refrigerants
    • 17.3.4 Cooling towers
    • 17.3.5 Chiller and cooling tower water treatment
    • 17.4 Support Equipment
    • 17.4.1 Pumps
    • 17.4.2 Condensers
    • 17.4.3 Piping, valves, traps, insulation
    • 17.5 Cost of Utilities
    • 17.5.1 Cost of purchasing electricity
    • 17.5.2 Cost of producing steam
    • 17.5.3 How to estimate building component heating costs
    • 17.5.4 How to estimate building component cooling costs
    • 17.5.5 How to evaluate energy cost savings
    • 17.6 Energy Conservation Measures
    • 17.6.1 Thermal storage
    • 17.6.2 Ice storage
    • 17.6.3 Variable speed drives
    • References

Part 4: Facilities Emergency Preparedness

  • Chapter 18. Facilities Emergency Preparedness - Richard P. Payant
    • 18.1 Why Emergency Response Preparedness?
    • 18.2 Types of Emergencies
    • 18.3 Assess Vulnerabilities
    • 18.4 Support Services
    • 18.5 Specific Procedures
    • 18.6 Start Point
    • 18.7 Organization
    • 18.8 Concept of Operation
    • 18.9 Command and Control
    • 18.10 Emergency Operations Center
    • 18.11 Responsibilities
    • 18.11.1 Facility manager's responsibility
    • 18.11.2 Security responsibilities
    • 18.12 Communications
    • 18.13 Mitigation
    • 18.13.1 Mitigation factors
    • 18.14 Damage Assessment
    • 18.14.1 Damage assessment team composition
    • 18.14.2 Damage assessment report
    • 18.14.3 Damage assessment team responsibilities
    • 18.14.4 Damage assessment information sources
    • 18.14.5 Damage assessment logistics considerations
    • 18.15 Information for First Responders
    • 18.16 Facility "First Responders"
    • 18.17 Recovery
    • 18.17.1 Recovery-General concept
    • 18.17.2 Recovery-Facilities restoration
    • 18.17.3 Recovery-Administration and logistics
    • 18.18 Training
    • 18.18.1 Training objectives
    • 18.18.2 Team training
    • 18.18.3 First responders training
    • 18.19 Facility Intelligence
    • 18.20 Summary
    • References

Part 5: Capital Investment

  • Chapter 19. Capital Investment - Daniel C. Harrison and Richard P. Payant
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 General
    • 19.3 Cost Accounting
    • 19.3.1 Incremental costs
    • 19.3.2 Opportunity costs
    • 19.3.3 Future costs
    • 19.3.4 Traceable costs
    • 19.3.5 Direct and indirect costs
    • 19.3.6 Sunk costs
    • 19.3.7 Book costs
    • 19.3.8 Replacement costs
    • 19.3.9 Fixed costs
    • 19.4 Interest
    • 19.4.1 Simple interest
    • 19.4.2 Compound interest
    • 19.5 Depreciation
    • 19.5.1 Depreciation accounting
    • 19.6 Comparison of Alternatives
    • 19.6.1 Equivalent annual cost
    • 19.6.2 Present worth
    • 19.6.3 Rate of return
    • 19.6.4 Salvage value
    • 19.6.5 Benefit-cost ratio
    • 19.7 Economic Studies
    • 19.7.1 Profit
    • 19.7.2 Ratio of income and investment
    • 19.8 Income
    • 19.9 Plan for Economic Analysis
    • 19.9.1 Creative step
    • 19.9.2 Definitive step
    • 19.9.3 Conversion step
    • 19.9.4 Decision step
    • 19.10 Estimates in Economic Analysis
    • 19.11 Capital Investment
    • 19.11.1 Criteria and strategy for capital investment
    • 19.11.2 Capacity of facility to perform its mission
    • 19.11.3 Economic opportunity
    • 19.11.4 Economic analysis of capital expenditures
    • 19.12 Life Cycle Costing
    • 19.13 Sources of Information and Assistance
    • 19.14 Justification and Requirements
    • 19.15 Economic Evaluation and Intangibles
    • 19.16 Validation
  • Glossary
  • Index

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