Lubricating Grease Guide

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Description

The Lubricating Grease Guide serves as a source of basic information on lubricating grease and is a handy quick reference book. It contains material pertaining to a broad spectrum of grease related subjects and is written by technicians for the beginner or for the practitioner who wants to broaden knowledge.

The Lubricating Grease Guide includes a grease application guide for beginners. You'll know when and how to select the right grease for your machinery and easily determine which greases are compatible.

 

Author:

NLGI

Published:

2006

Format:

Paperback

Pages:

112

Excerpt:

High Temperature Lubrication
"Greases fail more rapidly as temperature of operation increases. The most obvious reason for failure lies in the melting point of the thickener or dropping point of the grease. The latter involves a complex of melting and bleed. Evaporation may be significant at high temperatures. Oxidation also increases rapidly as temperature rises. There are useful guidelines for heat resistance of greases in service which take all these factors into consideration.

"Most mineral-oil-based greases (of adequate dropping point) will operate successfully to about 250 degrees F (121 degrees C). A smaller number can handle 300 degrees F (149 degrees C). A few mineral-oil-based greases can operate to about 350 degrees F (177 degrees C). Around this temperature, synthetic fluids are preferred or required. As service temperature rises, frequency of lubricant addition and relubrication must increase.

"In industrial service, the following may be considered reasonable relubrication intervals for rolling bearings (assuming eight work hours per day):

  • 180 degrees F (82 degrees C), 6 months
  • 220 degrees F (104 degrees C), 3 months
  • 300 degrees F (149 degrees C), 1 month
  • 380 degrees F (193 degrees C), 1 week
  • 460 degrees F (238 degrees C), 1 day
"These guidelines assume reasonable-size bearings operating at usual speeds and loads. If speed is high, bearing large, or load severe, relubrication intervals could be even shorter. Where service is severe and/or contamination is unavoidable, relubrication is best carried out with a centralized lubrication system, and lubrication intervals may be measured in hours or minutes.

"For high-temperature service, greases must be of high quality. But quality is not a fundamental property of a lubricant. It is the result of many factors which, all together, lead to the performance sought. Test data, while indicating the capability of a grease to perform well in service, do not guarantee such behavior. That is learned only in actual operation in the field--in machinery, in vehicles, etc. This is the limitation of specifications and the reason that laboratory results must be confirmed in field tests."

Table Of Contents:

  • Background
    • Historical
    • Technical
    • Petroleum Oils
    • Synthetic Lubricating Oils
    • Acids
    • Base or Alkalies-Neutralization
    • Fats, Fatty Acids, and Soaps-Saponification
    • Soaps as Thickeners
    • Milling and Homogenizing
    • Inorganic Thickeners
    • Urea Derivatives
    • Soap Complexes
    • Thickener Structures-Electron Micrographs
  • Manufacturing Modern Greases
    • Equipment Used
    • Grease Kettles
    • Variations in Kettle Design
    • Alternatives to the Open Grease Kettle
    • Continuous Grease Manufacture
    • Grease Plant Flow Diagram
    • Soap-Thickened Greases
    • Aluminum Soap Grease
    • Hydrated Calcium Soap Grease
    • Anhydrous Calcium Grease
    • Sodium Soap Grease
    • Lithium Soap Grease
    • Soap Complexes
    • Aluminum Complex Grease
    • Calcium Complex Grease
    • Barium Complex Grease
    • Lithium complex Grease
    • Nonsoap Greases
    • Organo-clay Grease
    • Polyurea Grease
    • Polyurea Complex Grease
    • Specialty Thickeners
    • Incorporation of Additives
    • Do Grease Plants Pollute
  • Test Lubricating Greases
    • Consistency
    • Penetration
    • NLGI Consistency Numbers
    • Consistency Stability
    • Flow Properties
    • Viscosity and Apparent Viscosity
    • Apparent Viscosity
    • Mobility
    • Low-Temperature Torque
    • Heat Resistance
    • Dropping Point
    • Thickener Melting Point
    • Trident Probe
    • Oil Separation
    • Evaporation
    • Storage Stability
    • Oxidation Stability
    • Storage Stability-Bomb Oxidation Test
    • Oxidation Stability in Service-Bearing Tests
    • Effects of Water
    • Water Washout
    • Water Spray-off
    • Corrosion
    • Load Carrying Tests
    • Four-Ball Wear
    • Four-Ball EP
    • Timken Lubrication and Wear Tester
    • Oscillating Motion
    • Analytical Tests
    • ASTM Standards
    • General Test Information
    • ASTM D 4950
    • NLGI Certification Mark
    • Categories of Service Greases
    • Chassis Greases vs. Wheel Bearing Greases
    • ASTM D Test Methods Required by D 4950
    • Requirements for ASTM D 4950 Grease Categories
    • Specifications-LB Chassis Grease
    • Specifications-GC Wheel Bearing Grease
    • Bibliography
  • Characteristics of Today's Greases
    • Single Purpose Greases
    • Increasing Versatility
    • Multipurpose and Specialty Greases
    • Formulation and Application Requirements
    • Petroleum Oils
    • Viscosity
    • Viscosity Index
    • Pour Point
    • Additives
    • Applying Grease Lubricants
    • High Temperature Lubrication
    • Pumpability and Slumpability
    • Compatibility
    • Consistency
    • Typical Grease Properties-Soap thickened Greases
    • Aluminum Soap Greases
    • Sodium Soap Greases
    • Calcium Soap Greases (Hydrated)
    • Lithium 12-Hydroxystearate Greases
    • Complex Soap Greases
    • Aluminum Complex Greases
    • Calcium Complex Greases
    • Lithium Complex Greases
    • Nonsoap Greases
    • Polyurea Greases
    • Organo-Clay Greases
  • When to Lubricate with Grease
    • To Decrease Dripping and Spattering of Lubricant
    • To Decrease Frequency of Lubrication
    • To Seal out Contaminants
    • For Intermittent Operation
    • To Suspend Solid Additives
    • When Extreme Operating Conditions Exist
    • High Temperature
    • High Pressure
    • Shock Loading
    • Low Speed Combined with High pressure
    • When Machine Parts are Badly Worn
    • When Noise Reduction is Important
  • Which Grease to Use When
    • Grease Application Guide
    • Automotive Aftermarket
    • Primary Metals-Steel Mills
    • Food Processing
    • Textiles
  • Troubleshooting Guide
    • Packaging, Storing, Handling, and Dispensing Guide
      • Grease Packages
      • Cartridges
      • Other Small Packages
      • Pails
      • Kegs
      • Drums
      • Jumbo Bins
      • Bulk Delivery
      • Grease Storage
      • Storage in the Grease Plant
      • Storage in the Filed
      • Bulk Grease Handling
      • Dispensing and Handling Greases
    • Toxicology, Safe Handling and Labeling of Greases
      • Labels
      • Material Safety Data Sheets
      • Hazard Determination, Handling, & Disposal of Used/Waste Greases
      • Requirements of the Community Right-to-Know
      • Transportation of Hazardous Materials
    • Glossary

       

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